Wednesday, January 4, 2017

Visual Imagery 2.0 / A Writer's Life

Sitting through a workshop this winter, I was amazed that writers struggle to find information important to characters and other visual ideas. A student in the workshop mentioned that they were struggling to see their character specifically. I immediately thought of Robert Olen Butler and his book From Where You Dream. And in his book he mentioned that we shouldn't be stifled by the things we don't know - the small intangible things that we can't name. He suggests using a visual dictionary to help with some of these issues. These reference books help us name things that can help us be specific and clear in the writing. While I have one, I don't use it all that much. However, I had recently noticed a writer who was using Pinterest for references to her writing. And I was fascinated how this social media tool might reboot the idea that visual references can inspire us and make connections. 

Pinterest is a collection of images and other media organized through headings known as "boards" that help categorize how and why they are relevant to the collector. In terms of a writing tool, we have a wide range of purpose and focus. For example, writers might need to know "Civil War Uniforms" and collect pins to support the look and feel of both sides of the battle. The more specific a writer can be, the better suited they can make their finds on Pinterest. If you need shoreline cottages in Ireland, you can probably create a collection.  But there is more than just collecting things. Pins and boards can become relatable. 

When you see things (from different pins) that begin to relate to one another, you being to make connections. That can bring ideas together. From hairstyles, fabrics, wood joining, to dishes, Pinterest can help. And while we know excessive detail can be grueling, finding the right significant detail can carry a lot of weight in prose. This social media can help. 

If your purpose is to know the names of things, this won't be a good focus for you. But if you need to build visual relationships, to connect ideas, this might be the right space for you. What may be confusing is creating a visual for something you haven't actually touch or seen. For example, if you needed to know what an Egyptian bug swatter looked like, you will probably find it. Then you will have a sense of what these things looked like. It may also inspire you to look at why Egyptians had so many bugs around them to begin with. Hence, a new line of inquiry and perhaps focus could enter into your writing (dying of malaria is a significant plot point). 

Social media is typically a writer's worst distraction, but in this place, we should be considering different application, creations, and, connections to our craft. Sometimes, we find connection in the most unlikely things and places, and with a powerful search engine, this digital tool could change a phrase, a sentence, a page, or a story. It can also change the way we find inspirations and interconnections. 

What this social media platform creates is some foundational visuals that are important for writers, but not realized by the reader. This is a writers tool that is folded into the craft and transmitted through the story and words. You shouldn't notice specific pins or websites on the page, but the story is more informed, concrete, and subtle because of access to these ideas and connections. 

Sunday, November 6, 2016

Book Review: A Field Guide to Murder & Fly Fishing by Tim Weed

A Field Guide to Murder & Fly Fishing: Stories by Tim Weed. Green Writers Press. 2017. 978-0-9974528-7-7 ($24.95) Hardcover.

Diving into this collection of short stories by writer and travel expert Tim Weed, you might want to pack your bags and roam the continent in search of great harrowing adventures. And in some ways, this collection delivers on that. But embedded in these narratives, is a deeper longing, a desperate, and sometimes frustrating relationship, between his protagonist’s fraught desires, fears, and dreams. The depth of emotions reveal subtle, dynamic, and often stunning revelations.  

In stories like “Tower Eight,” “Mouth of the Tropics,” “Diamondback Mountain,” and “Keepers,” Weed moves the physical world to the forefront where nature, mountains, fish, weather conditions, and the reality of nature itself become antagonistic. These stories echo the Hemingway tradition of fronting raw power and natural uncertainty as a means to test a character's fate. This can end in a lesson learned or life lost. But his complexity is not limited to this “surviving nature” theme.

Tim Weed’s balance of emotional connection and physical space is always true to the lyrical sense of his prose. At times, the physical locations: Cuba, Grenada, Colorado, the slopes of New Hampshire, Spain, Italy, all play roles in the narratives that balance the emotional depth to the physicality of these locations. Each story hinges on a moment where physical space and emotional connection criss-cross. In “Diamondback Mountain,” a field guide who has fallen for a movie actress finds himself caught up in such emotions it feels like it materializes into a great collapse of his life on the side of the mountain.

“At first he is frantic, but he can’t move more than a twitch, and gradually a feeling of serenity washes over him. When he thinks about it, he’s known for a while that this or something like it was coming. In a way, the pressure of the snow is soothing.”

The balance between falling in love with an actress and the collapse of any kind of his dreams come down on him, catching him in a balance between the physical world and the metaphorical realm that Weed strikes. “Six Feet under the Prairie” connects to the physical and emotional conflict of utility linemen working on the open prairie, fraught with two men at odds with one another, while mourning the loss of the open wilderness for that of suburban development. This harsh and sometimes majestic landscape is constantly fluctuating between a lyrical lesson and a very real and hard-won place in the world.

Beyond the natural battles and the lyrical vision of his prose, Weed is at his best when he is pushing the edge of obsessions. His stories connect when we feel the misguided love, the vision of beauty, and the hope that love will follow from one continent to another. In “A Winter Break in Rome, the narrator (Justin) is obsessed with Kate, another student on winter break in Europe. In the hopes of connecting romantically with her, Justin gets into a fight with local Italian boys and he is beaten for his troubles. In the aftermath, missing a few teeth, there is a deeply moving moment where Justin asks Kate to join him in Greece for the remainder of the trip. Instead of giving him an answer, she says, “Crete should be beautiful this time of year. Also Mykonos. You should definitely go there.” And the dream of being together is dashed in one allusive phrase. His physical beating and now his emotional loss cohabitate across the table. It is desperate, sad, and classically romantic.

A Field Guide to Murder & Fly Fishing is more than a collection of adventure stories. It is a significant and moving collection of ideas, snapshots, and visions that leave a lasting impression. Tim Weed’s masterful approach to the opposing forces of his character (nature and emotions) always reveals well-crafted moving stories. It is clear that his experience as a travel expert, educator, and writer has honed his craft to transcend adventure writing to an emotional experience that is timely and deeply moving. Never predictable, this collection is a must for travelers, adventure seekers, and anyone who cares to examine the depth of his varied and flawed characters. Tim Weed is the author of the historical fiction novel Will Poole's Island (2014) and is available in e-book and print format.

Tuesday, July 12, 2016


This is a cool video that connects to so much of the way I think and see the world of writing, thinking, and connecting to the world. At one point, we were talking about the death of the novel at a master's course, and I argued that it isn't dying - it is changing in a way that you don't see. This connects to that kind of thinking. Thanks Joe Dillion for directing me to it. 

I like the idea of hyper linking and connecting that way and perhaps that is a different chapter. But in the spirit of the Pokeman Go crazy, there is something very tangible about a QR Code that can be printed on a syllabus, plastered on a t-shirt, or added to a billboard. They are not always ideal and they aren't the innovation to change the world, but when a student asks for assignment in the library and I don't have a copy, I let him scan the QR Code with his phone and he has it. Cool. 

I also think about connecting things. Imagine creating a book that needs instructions. Use a QR Code to connect readers to the instructions. In the case of Scott Momaday's On the Way to the Rainey Mountain, there is so much interconnection to that book and The Anicent Child that one is really a connective myth guide to the other. Not only can we link other texts, we can create small text messages, connections, and locations that make scanning this information important and relevant to your life. 

In a graphic novel course, I had students review graphic novels and then put their QR Codes on bookmarks and stuck the bookmarks in the books at the library. Students could scan the codes and read a peer-reviews of the graphic novel. 

It is interesting in the video above when it discusses that XML doesn't "define form. It defines the content." What does that mean to the novelist, the poet, the journalist? What does it mean? I will let you know when I find out more. 

P.S. QR Code Dice - how fun would that be?

Monday, July 11, 2016

CLMOOC Introduction - Getting My Hands Dirty

I am excited to be here and I will try to be diligent with posting and sharing. It is very nice to be surrounded by so many creative, smart, and thoughtful people in a learning community. With no budgets for professional development, I find these groups and connections very valuable to my vision of teaching and thinking. So thanks for having me. 

Poetry with a twist to introduce myself. 
Click here to view the poetry. 
Thanks for reading and exploring with me. 

Notes on QR Codes. I get that sometimes, QR Codes can not be effective to give connections to readers. If people are looking at them with their mobile devices, they can't use an app to scan what is on their phone. 

And yet, there is something I like about them. They are connections. They are symbols. They can be attached to a website, a document, or a message. They can do a lot. I've written poems this way a few times and feel like I am merely trying to explain my content. In my introduction, I tried to move away from the direct correlation between the words and the content on the other side of the QR Code. In some cases, like On The Way to Rainy Mountain is a full text. If you were to explore all these connections, it would take some time. That isn't the point. The point is - look at texts, images, and ideas that influenced me. Perhaps it will enhance the content. It is a novelty for the time being. Easier and less gimmicky is just hyper links embedded in the texts. I like that idea too, but a hyperlink can't be clicked on a t-shirt. But a QR Code can be scanned off a t-shirt taking you anywhere. 

I did some other projects with QR Codes if anyone is interested. Thanks for your interest. 

Syllabus and the QR Codes

Boxes and Connections 

Monday, June 27, 2016

Experimental Novels Part I


Ask anyone and they will tell you that I am fascinated with process in writing and in order to understand the way we write, we have to understand that we can find specific reasons or connections to the choices we make. From names of characters to motivation to plot, process is important. The more I can identify some reason and function for my choices, the more I understand where I am going and why. That being said, one of my favorite topics to read, research, and share is my love of experimental novels. And in order to really understand why it matters at all, we have to define what they are and why they differ from other novels. And then, by looking at some novels that I consider experimental, it will also help find characteristics that are relevant in watching the evolution of experimental novels and ideas over the years. This series is part book review (of experimental novels), part idea building, and part process discussion. So, it won't always feel like the typical blog post. Sometimes, it will feel like a hyper-focused discussion about one book. Other times, it will talk more broadly. And sometimes, it will be connections and random thoughts. If you would like to share your ideas, feelings, or refer books - I would be happy. The comment sections will be open for that purpose. 

I will post a working list of experimental novels HERE, as a shared document. Feel free to add your favorites. 

Experimental isn't cutting edge. In fact, experimental novels of the past paved the way for how we consider the novel now. Even a common high school literary experience like Moby Dick by Hermann Melville might be considered experimental at the time. The experimental novel isn't new. In fact, all innovations in novel writing were and are considered experimental. Some are more pronounced, but they all have fed into the discussion that will be evolving here on this website, through the sources, and through other connections. In looking at some titles, it will be necessary to put the novel into historical context. What was happening in the world around the book? What was the author thinking? Why this experimental concept at this moment? And what did it mean? 

Perhaps any artist that attempts to find the edges of their craft will eventually consider some kind of experimentation or variation on what is considered the normal balance of art expectations. Often, experimentation with poetry, paints, and other modes of art feel like they absorb and use experimentation as a constant in their understanding of the craft. While the novel, stands in a slow pattern of change. Forever on the edge of extinction, the novel moves through slower changes. And I don't think the heralding of the long form's untimely death has ever done anything but strengthen its resolve to continue forward. In the last twenty years, I've posed the idea that the novel isn't dying or even in elder care - but changing into things that don't make sense to critics and literary crepe hangers. It is believing the television will never change, only to find everyone talking about a show on Netflix, that thing you didn't subscribe too because it seemed like a scam. Perhaps then, the novel will change with the technology, change with the vision a future forged in strife and chaos rather than bucolic suburban dreams that disappeared shortly after the second invasion of the Iraq. The novel might be on the move. It might be expanding. But until we use some of our tools and innovate their use on experimental texts, we will never really understand the edges of the novel world. That is my goal to discuss, view, and understand where the novel has been in terms of experimentation and evolution so that we can innovate and embrace the new vision of novel writing, style, and process involved in continuing his vast and stunning legacy in letters. 

Friday, May 13, 2016

#Rhizo16 / Oh Boy

So, we are going to jump into this with some kind of understanding of the idea of resilience. And while I am concerned about the topic and how little I might know and add to the conversation, I also know that I felt the same way last year. 

So, as I plunge into what is a prewriting for what is coming, I think there is something relevant to the idea of resilience and writing. Being in the field of writing -- this has been my area to jump into with rhizo thinking and learning, so I will start there. But first - my thoughts on juggling. 

I've presented a few times on risk taking to parents and shaping some goals and good habits around healthy risk taking with families before coming to college. One of the challenges that I throw out is juggling. Can you learn to juggle over the summer? During my first presentation, I showed them how I can juggle three objects and told them once they learn, it will never leave them. Like riding a bike, they might get rusty, but they will never forget what it feels like to juggle. Then I challenge them to come back and show me they can juggle in a few months. And I told them that I would like to take on juggle five. And since I threw down this challenge, I've not been very diligent. In fact, I haven't progressed very far with five at all. Why? Because I haven't been resilient. I haven't even really practiced enough to see success. I know I can probably do it. But I haven't put the time or the focus on this task to do it. Part of the struggle for me is not "if" I can do it, it is knowing that I have to put in more time that I really want to to make it happen. And what is worse, I feel like knowing the power of three is enough, but knowing the beauty and the hard work of five just doesn't seem worth it. Why? Part of me wants it very badly, and part of me doesn't because of the time. Is this a resilience issue? Have I grown too old to accept the work that I need to put in. Looking at the definition -- I feel like I do need to overcome something to make this happen - but I need to find out what that is. Maybe I just don't see the payoff. And that isn't me at all. And that is disturbing. 

Writers have this problem too. Write and write, reject, fail, not accepted in this, rejected from that. It becomes very hard to be resilient to failing when success is so rare. At least that is how it appears in my life, and the volume of writing that a writer creates to that of success is at significant odds with reality. What other worlds do people continue to fail and still hold a sense of resilience, a sense of methodology to their growth. Fail better, fail harder, fail more completely. If I can just juggle five, I will be okay. If I can write another novel, and sell it, I will be successful. How do I come back - I do we reform? How do you listen to someone explain the wrong in writing and come back to normal? It isn't about pity, it is about building. How do we reshape ourselves when we have lost, dropped the balls, and feel like we can't move forward? 

We don't stay the same, we evolve and change. The hope is that we grow. Perhaps resilience can also be measured in what we resolve to become when we fail again and again. Not because we are not trying, not because we are doing it the same way over and over, but because we must fail more before we can throw the third ball. We must read more rejection letters, we must hear how trite our writing is, we must take it all before we can carry the weight of our possibilities. For students, failure is merely a grade, a passing course, whatever goal they need to accomplish - but there is no rubric for life - for raising a family, for writing a novel, or juggling chainsaws. We know failure and resilience on our own specific terms. My rubric grows every day, new categories down the side, and more levels of completion across the top, emerging, struggling, attempting, developing - there are so many I can't see the edge of the paper anymore. 

Four weeks of Rhizo16 - five balls, juggling. Outcome: fail. Outlook: Superstar. 

Monday, April 18, 2016

Tuesday, April 12, 2016

Between The Lines: Slaughterhouse Five Opening

Truth and fiction is a strange world. Writers are constantly invested in the vision of living many lives - some on paper while others are in real life. The complexity of writing fiction and understanding truth runs parallel to the idea that we can talk about truth and find its mirrored in fiction. In terms of writing, true stories and real accounts has a value to the general readership. We see labels splashed across book covers and movie posters that profess that they are based on a true story. And yet, the layers of fact to fiction can be complex and run deep into the story. 

Does it matter? Does fiction have to hold truth? Does a true story shift into fiction as soon as it is captured and told from different voices?  

It is important to write about these lines and ideas as they relate to both sides of the issue. It isn't black and white, truth and fiction, but a combination of millions of possibilities and connections that make truth stranger than fiction. This series continues to discuss this concept. Sometimes, these entries will be brief notes and connections, while other articles will a bit more elaborate. 

In Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut, we are faced with the kind of strange world that I want to continue to explore - perhaps for the rest of my life. I want to be the truth expert in fiction... whatever that means. 

"All this happened, more or less. The war parts, anyway, are pretty much true. One guy I knew really was shot in Dresden for taking a teapot that wasn't his. Another guy really did threaten to have his personal enemies killed by hired gunman after the war. And so on. I've changed all the names." 

In looking at the way this opening reads, it is clear that fact and fiction are coming together. Most of the sentences in this section have disclaimers to the truth. "All this happened" is very declarative until it is disqualified with "more or less." This builds the uncomfortable relationship that is being established. 

He moves on to the next idea, "The war parts, anyway, are pretty much true." Alluding to the idea that "pretty much" covers enough. As we move to the next sentence, we should acknowledge the emphasis on the words. "One guy I knew really was shot in Dresden for taking a teapot that wasn't his." This is a moment where you feel like the writer wants to look you in the eyes, look, this happened. Notice there are no names here. The next sentence continues this serious tone, "Another guy really did threaten to have his personal enemies killed by a hired gunman after the war." In these phrases, the narrator wants us to realize that there is truth, even fact in these words, but they can't be verified. They can't be questioned. You will have to take his word for it that they happened.

In the last two sentences, we have "And so on" as if we would just carry on with more of his stories. And then he forfeits it all by saying, "I've changed all the names." The obscuring of the names isn't at all a surprise, the narrator has teased out the balance between truth and fiction here, but to it does remind us - I will tell the truth by obscuring facts and leaving you merely with truth. Of course, this is merely an interpretation, but it does a back and fourth of reality that is being played one aginst the other. 

This work is considered semi-autobiographical which alone strikes at the heart of the matter. Half true, half something else. Part of what we are seeing here might be an answer for the mass destruction, the death, and the insanity of war. It can't be shown to the reader without cloaking it in imagination, shifting the reality away from the reader, intentionally block the brunt of the evil so that the readers can begin somewhere. This novel was written twenty-five years out from his personal experience. Perhaps it is this distortion that helps define the balance between right and wrong.  - #

Ron Samul is a writer and educator. For more information or to contact him, go to 

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Friday, March 11, 2016

Writing Feedback and the Art of Wonder

by Ron Samul 
The power of information, understanding, and thinking is one of the most important skills I want students to understand in academics. Sure, they will have to write papers and do some grunt work for me, but in the end, I want diverse thinking based on thoughtful research. 

When I saw this article that suggests that feedback shouldn't be a directive, but an exploration, I realized that I wasn't fostering diverse thinking if I was telling them what I wanted them to change (make the teacher happy = good grade). But I realize now that perhaps this is not helping. Bill Ferriter posted this idea by Dylan Wiliam and it struck me that perhaps I needed to change the way I spoke to them between the lines. 

"It turns out that it isn't the giving of the feedback that causes learning gains, it is the acting on feedback that determines how much students learn"(1)

If feedback is given to college writers in terms of questions, places to look, or just leads... then students are given permission to explore and find their own learning moments. In the world of creative writing, I think there is more of an exploration of ideas rather than concrete direction and focus. 

The difference is the creative element. The choices writers make with creative writing is based on experience, not form or rhetoric. That being said, feedback does come in the way of questions and connections. Drawing in connections allows the writer to go back and consider relationships, allows them to see another writer moving around the same ideas. It is theirs to comprehend. My point is, when you look to a method of investigative feedback, we should look into the creative writing models and see how feedback is delivered. The biggest insult to a creative writer would be to tell them that their creative expression is wrong. But we do it constantly in academic writing because we are looking for specific benchmarks and rubric goals. In novel writing, sometimes we don't even realize what is happening in the novel to evaluate right and wrong. Recently, I've asked students to pre-read their novel before I commit to working with them on it. Not because they are not good writers, but perhaps I am not the writer to help you with the type of book you want to write? It is a big endeavor and not one to be taken lightly. 

Academic writing could take a few lessons from understanding the value of open-ended feedback. If the grade was secondary to the goal of better writing, we could change the thinking, the writing, and the vision of the paper. Maybe the equation is "challenge teacher = good grade" or "find a sense of voice = good grade" rather than the idea doing what the student is told. 

The last few semesters, I have taken the high-stakes research project for freshman and positioned it in the middle of the semester. The reason behind it was to spend time after the initial writing to explore, deconstruct, and revalue what they added to their paper. Most of the papers that come in are cleaned up rough drafts, and I think spending some time thinking about their paper is valuable. 

The next step is to make them feel like they know something they didn't know before. I want to them to feel like they are knowledgeable about the content of their research. If they are not, then what did they gain? It isn't enough to read the research paper back to me, it must be something you understand. That is what makes good writing. A good creative writer understands what they are writing and knows the depth of their words. So should academics, and be leading them by way of discoverable feedback, the depth of their thinking increases. 

Ron Samul is a writer and educator. For more information or to contact him, go to 

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Teachers in the Clouds

by Ron Samul 
"So what’s better? A teacher who waits in the wings till students need them, or one who “softly and silently vanishes away” when they are no longer needed? Or, rather, which is better when?" -- Sarah Honeycurch

In higher education, I've been actively trying to reposition myself self in terms of my role as the instructor in the class. I don't think lecturing and traditional content delivery are viable. When I saw this questioned posted on NoMadWarMachine website, and I connected immediately with some of the students I worked with last spring and into the fall.

It is inherent in my teaching style to foster collaboration with student writing and research. I want them to be good researchers, better writers, better thinkers -- I also think that I have to step aside and let them write and be effective in their practice. It might take some students a few tries to format, argue, and research their work, but that practice is good work for students.  Teaching overview skills to the entire class and then working with students one-to- one is important to fostering an individualized yet pedagogical approach to their writing. And there I am, "a teacher who is in the wings till students need them." While I know they are writing their research papers, I am waiting to assist, collaborate, and redirect students to resources, motivation, and other elements of the writing process. In Star Wars terms, this is Yoda in the swamp teaching his pupil the ways of the Force.
Yoda to the left. 

In recalibrating my purpose and interaction with students, it is clear that sometimes (with a few students) it is more important to disappear and be the whispering voice. In many ways we are in a contract with the student. They are taking the course and we have an obligations to instruct in the subject area. But how and why we do that is constantly transforming. More and more students come to me asking -"when am I really going to use this in my career." In some cases, they have a point - but not everything we learn we use in our jobs. That is where the transference of skills and ideas needs to be fostered. And perhaps, like Yoda, we need to show how important some of the transferability of their skills are across many jobs and skills they will be using. You will need to be proficient at formatting documents, finding effective articles and research, and they will have to communicate clearly. Students want individualized education and I want them to experience their educational path as an individual. But I also want them to be well versed in taking skills out of the classroom and turning them into assets in the real world.

The beauty of our job is that we will disappear, but the hope is to have an echo caught in the ears of the students - a voice that says you need to write, think, and express yourself. It is everywhere - and that is why you don't think you need them. 

Ron Samul is a writer and educator. For more information or to contact him, go to 

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Friday, February 12, 2016

Quick Response Codes - Dying to Use Technology

by Ron Samul 

Quick Response Codes were developed to link products to advertising, marketing, and stock information. They were developed in Japan as a way of automating connections from a thing to information stored online. The difference between a bar code (numerical) and a Quick Response Code is the amount and type of data that it encodes. Thinking about and creating quick response codes came from elements for a class in the fall and participation in Digital Writing Month. Not only did the idea of codes as keys become engaging, it was something that I could introduce to my class and make operational quickly. See links below for older articles and connections. 

Yesterday, speaking to a Death and Dying instructor, I was shown a fascinating connection to Quick Response Codes and the dead. A Living Headstone is more than just a burial plot. The idea is simple - attach a QR code to a tombstone and when someone stops by - they scan the code and see a video, slideshow, or website commemorating your loved one. I love this idea and I love the idea of using QR codes to share the connections between the cemetery plot and the family memories. I also enjoy the way the website promotes this technology into the respectful memorial jargon. In a "timeless tradition of granite headstones with the newest technology available. We provide an interactive "living" memorial that is a legacy for future generations." This is one more example of how technology can disrupt traditional rituals of our culture. 

Not only does the code connect to information about the deceased, but it can be added to existing monuments. Imagine donating a granite bench to your university alumni and adding the QR code to your website. Achievements, class images, projects, and friends can all connect to make the memorial an important touchstone to those who care.

This post is not meant to be patronising or sarcastic. In fact, the point is to highlight another interesting use of QR Codes in the evolution of our rituals and connections to our society. If we can have "Find-a-Grave" where we have started to index tombstones and cemeteries, this would seem like a good next step for the logical integration of memories to the source of someone's final resting place.

Like the previous articles that discuss ways to use QR Codes for scavager hunts, tree identification, and even party favours -- it makes sense that this is the next generation of tangible connection between a lost loved one and a grieving family. And like new technology, will it stand the test of time? 

Not to minimize the impact of the newly deceased, this would be an interesting element to allow for historical access to cemeteries. I know we have a few old cemeteries with stones that hold significant historical context. Imagine a location for a small QR Code next to the stone that could access archives and other resources to help people understand the history, the tangible connection to the past, and the keys that can unlock real knowledge and understanding - even as they wandered through the pristine grounds of a cemetery. 

Reference Articles 
QR Codes and Your Syllabus 
QR Codes on the Ground 
Boxes and Connections 

Ron Samul is a writer and educator. For more information or to contact him, go to 

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